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- French clockmakers began implementing modern production methods, particularly in the manufacture of movements.
- French cases of the period were often richly detailed and ornate, requiring the skills of one or more artisans.
Mid 19th Century
- Inexpensive mass-produced clocks from America entered European markets.
- European clockmakers adopted modern production techniques in an effort to remain competitive, but produced a smaller number of clocks than American firms.
- However, their products were often of higher quality than the average American production piece.
- In the north of France, a factory-driven carriage clock industry had emerged and its products were popular exports, especially to England and Austria.
The English Horological Tradition
- A significant mechanical and artistic achievement.
- London had been one of the world's most prominent clockmaking centers since the late 17th century.
- After the Industrial Revolution, English clockmaking modernized gradually, but British products could not compete with the German and American imports that flowed into England.
- However, England remained the world's primary source for marine chronometers until World War II.