European Clock and Watchmaking (2)

 European Clocks

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Early 1800s


- French clockmakers began implementing modern production methods, particularly in the manufacture of movements.

- French cases of the period were often richly detailed and ornate, requiring the skills of one or more artisans.



Mid 19th Century


- Inexpensive mass-produced clocks from America entered European markets.

- European clockmakers adopted modern production techniques in an effort to remain competitive, but produced a smaller number of clocks than American firms.

- However, their products were often of higher quality than the average American production piece.

- In the north of France, a factory-driven carriage clock industry had emerged and its products were popular exports, especially to England and Austria.


The English Horological Tradition


- A significant mechanical and artistic achievement.

- London had been one of the world's most prominent clockmaking centers since the late 17th century.

- After the Industrial Revolution, English clockmaking modernized gradually, but British products could not compete with the German and American imports that flowed into England.

- However, England remained the world's primary source for marine chronometers until World War II.